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Turkey

EU Candidate Country

Turkey Indicators

Happiness

5.13

0 unhappy, 10 happy

2020
The Happiness ranking is part of the World Happiness Report. The country scores are based on a survey in which respondents evaluate the quality of their current lives on a scale of 0 to 10.
Life expectancy

77.44

years

2018
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.
Political stability

-1.34

-2.5 weak, 2.5 strong

2019
The Political Stability Index and Absence of Violence/Terrorism measures perceptions of the likelihood that the government will be destabilized or overthrown by unconstitutional or violent means, including politically-motivated violence and terrorism.
Political rights

5

7 weak, 1 strong

2020
The Political Rights ratings from the Freedom House evaluate three categories: electoral process, political pluralism and participation, and the functioning of government. The index ranges from 1 (strong rights) to 7 (weak rights).
Civil liberties

6

7 weak, 1 strong

2020
The Civil Liberties index from the Freedom House evaluate the following: freedom of expression and belief, associational and organizational rights, rule of law, and personal autonomy and individual rights. The rating ranges from 1 (strong liberties) to 7 (no liberties).
Corruption

39

100 = no corruption

2019
The Corruption Perceptions Index is an indicator of perceptions of public sector corruption, i.e. administrative and political corruption (based on information from surveys and assessments of corruption, collected by a variety of reputable institutions).
Population

83.43

Million

2019
Total population is indicated in Millions and is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship. The values shown are midyear estimates.
Population growth

1.49

% growth / year

2018
Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
Population density

107

People per square km

2018
Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
Urban population

75.63

% of total population

2019
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. The data are collected and smoothed by United Nations Population Division.
Migrant population

4

% of total population

2015
International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees.
Economic growth

0.92

% of GDP

2019
Economic growth is intended as the annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency.
Foreign Direct Investment

1.19

% of GDP

2019
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor (new investment inflows less disinvestment). Source: The World Bank.
Exports

32.74

% of GDP

2019
Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. Source: The World Bank
Government debt

39.51

% of GDP

2020
Government debt includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government.
Capital investment

24.80

% of GDP

2019
Capital investments are fixed assets including for example land improvements, plant, machinery, construction of roads, railways, schools, offices, hospitals, private residential, commercial and industrial buildings, etc.
Inflation

12.3

% yearly change

2020
Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly.
Inflation

15.2

% yearly change

2019
Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly.
Competitiveness

62.10

0 weak, 100 strong

2019
The Global Competitiveness index is composed of 12 pillars of competitiveness: Institutions, Infrastructure, ICT adoption, Macroeconomic stability, Health, Skills, Product market, Labor market, Financial system, market size, Business, dynamism, and Innovation capability.
R&D

0.96

% of GDP

2017
Gross domestic expenditures on research and development (R&D), expressed as a percent of GDP. They include both capital and current expenditures in the four main sectors: Business enterprise, Government, Higher education and Private non-profit.
Shadow economy

27.43

% of GDP

2015
The shadow economy as percent of total annual GDP. Detailed methodology of the estimations can be obtained from the following International Monetary Fund working paper by Leandro Medina and Friedrich Schneider (2018).
Health spending

4.12

% of GDP

2018
Level of current health expenditure expressed as a percentage of GDP. Estimates of current health expenditures include healthcare goods and services consumed during each year but does not include capital health expenditures such as buildings, machinery, IT and stocks of vaccines for emergency or outbreaks.
Education spending

2.75

% of GDP

2006
General government expenditure on education is expressed as a percentage of GDP. It includes expenditure funded by transfers from international sources to government. General government usually refers to local, regional and central governments.
Military spending

2.72

% of GDP

2019
Military spending includes expenditure on peacekeeping, defense ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities, military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions, operations and maintenance; procurement, military research and development, and military aid.
Unemployment

13.92

% of labor force

2020
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Source: The World Bank
Females unemployment

16.38

% of female labor force

2019
Female unemployment refers to the share of the female labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Source: The World Bank
Males unemployment

12.31

% of male labor force

2019
Male unemployment refers to the share of the male labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Source: The World Bank
Youth unemployment

24.64

% of 15-24 labor force

2019
Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Source: The World Bank
Cost of starting a business

6.00

% of income per capita

2019
The cost of starting a business indicator includes all official fees and fees for legal or professional services if such services are required by law. The company law, the commercial code, and specific regulations and fee schedules are used as sources for calculating costs. Source: The World Bank.
Tax rate

42.30

% of commercial profits

2019
Total tax rate measures the amount of taxes and mandatory contributions payable by businesses after accounting for allowable deductions and exemptions as a share of commercial profits. Personal income tax, VAT, sales taxes or goods and service taxes are excluded.
Number of taxes paid by businesses

10

2019
Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent. Source: The World Bank.
Patent applications

7871

by residents

2019
Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years.
Internet users

73.98

% of population

2019
Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc. Source: The World Bank.
Land area

769630

sq. km

2018
Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes.
Agricultural land

378020

sq. km.

2018
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Source: FAO.
Forest area

219083.6

sq. km

2018
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens. Source: FAO
Precipitation

593

mm per year

2017
Average precipitation is the long-term average in depth (over space and time) of annual precipitation in the country. Precipitation is defined as any kind of water that falls from clouds as a liquid or a solid.
Roads quality

5.00

1 low, 7 high

2019
The Road quality indicator represents an assessment of the quality of roads in a given country based on data from the WEF Executive Opinion Survey. The respondents are asked to rate the roads in their country of operation on a scale from 1 (bad) to 7 (good).
Railroads quality

3.50

1 low, 7 high

2019
The Quality of railroad infrastrucutre indicator represents an assessment of the quality of the railroad system in a given country based on data from the WEF Executive Opinion Survey. The respondents are asked to rate the railroads in their country of operation on a scale from 1 (bad) to 7 (good).
Air transport quality

5.40

1 low, 7 high

2019
The Quality of air transport infrastructure indicator represents an assessment of the quality of airports in a given country based on data from the WEF Executive Opinion Survey. The respondents are asked to rate the passenger air transport in their country of operation on a scale from 1 (bad) to 7 (good).
Energy imports

75.21

% total energy use

2015
Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Source: The World Bank
Oil production

61.75

thousand barrels / day

2020
Oil production, thousand barrels per day
Renewable power capacity

44.75

million kilowatts

2019
Total capacity to produce electricity from renewable resources in million kilowatts.
Carbon dioxide emissions

4.67

metric tons per capita

2016
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Source: The World Bank.
Bank branches

17.39

per 100,000 people

2017
Number of commercial bank branches per 100,000 adults.
ATMs

83.95

per 100,000 adults

2019
Number of ATMs per 100,000 adults. Automated teller machines are computerized telecommunications devices that provide clients of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public place.
Homicides

4.3

per 100,000 people

2012
Number of homicides per 100,000 people per year.
Robberies

34

per 100,000 people

2016
Number of robberies per 100,000 people per year.
Suicides

2.40

per 100,000 population

2019
Suicide mortality rate is the number of suicide deaths in a year per 100,000 population.
Prisoners

322

per 100,000 people

2017
Number of prisoners per 100,000 people.

Turkey News More ...

Turkey Publications More ...

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Antagonisms in the EU's neighbourhood The EU, Russia, Turkey, Iran and Saudi Arabia struggle for influence in their common neighbourhood
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the "new Turkey" as a NATO member domestic state transformation and competing strategic cultures
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REMOURBAN and fellow projects in Brussels for a series of smar...
On 26 January 2018 representatives of 40 cities sat around the table at the Innovation and Networks Executive Agency (INEA) with industry representatives and experts to ensure that the €263.84 million invested by th...
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URBAN GreenUP consortium partners gathered together from the 16th to the 18th of January 2018 in Izmir for its 2nd Periodic Meeting, an occasion to share knowledge and progress on the implementation of urban renaturin...
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Izmir organized its first International Green Infrastructure Workshop to highlight the governments’ role in moulding policies that support nature-based solutions and to announce its Green Infrastructure Strategy
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A peripheral district in Genoa, Italy, has become a smart city lab. The project has improved apartment conditions, reduced waste and lowered the energy bill, all with the help of citizens
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CITyFiED Methodology is an integrated approach divided into seven phases, ranging from initial citywide diagnosis to final evaluation of the renovation. It includes an indicators tool and guidelines to support decisio...
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The new Lighthouse Project MAtchUP kicks-off in Valencia
Three new Lighthouse cities and Four Follower cities enriching the European smart city landscape
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Starting the R2CITIES home run
In late October, the R2CITIES team met in Kartal, Turkey, for its second-to-last project meeting. As we look ahead to the final months of the project, our attention is on the monitoring of the works. This will allow u...
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Early-stage venture capital for energy innovation: Financing m...
Early-stage venture capital for energy innovation: Financing models, trends and implications for policy
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Disruptive innovation delivering industrial solutions that mak...
With a strong dedication to supporting and funding applied MSc and PhD research, Mir Technology Holding has more than 100 commercialised patents and a unique production know how helping CITyFiED district heating solut...
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Art as vessel of science
Turkish artist Pinar Yoldas is committed to educating through her artworks inspired by biological sciences. “Education is the only mass weapon we have to address our global problems and to bring about solutions,” ...
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Recycling CO2… It’s a work of art!
The transformation of carbon dioxide into useful chemicals has inspired Turkish artist Pinar Yoldas to depict the complex process in symbolic works of artRead more: http://www.youris.com/society/future-tech/recycl...
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While Turkey is well known as a hot and sunny holiday destination, it also faces low temperatures, which means it has both substantial heating and cooling needs for its building stock. The country also lies in one of ...
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