The Political Stability Index and Absence of Violence/Terrorism measures perceptions of the likelihood that the government will be destabilized or overthrown by unconstitutional or violent means, including politically-motivated violence and terrorism.
The Political Rights ratings from the Freedom House evaluate three categories: electoral process, political pluralism and participation, and the functioning of government. The index ranges from 1 (strong rights) to 7 (weak rights).
The Civil Liberties index from the Freedom House evaluate the following: freedom of expression and belief, associational and organizational rights, rule of law, and personal autonomy and individual rights. The rating ranges from 1 (strong liberties) to 7 (no liberties).
The Corruption Perceptions Index is an indicator of perceptions of public sector corruption, i.e. administrative and political corruption (based on information from surveys and assessments of corruption, collected by a variety of reputable institutions).
Total population is indicated in Millions and is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship. The values shown are midyear estimates.
Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor (new investment inflows less disinvestment). Source: The World Bank.
Government debt includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government.
Capital investments are fixed assets including for example land improvements, plant, machinery, construction of roads, railways, schools, offices, hospitals, private residential, commercial and industrial buildings, etc.
Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly.
Gross domestic expenditures on research and development (R&D), expressed as a percent of GDP. They include both capital and current expenditures in the four main sectors: Business enterprise, Government, Higher education and Private non-profit.
The shadow economy as percent of total annual GDP. Detailed methodology of the estimations can be obtained from the following International Monetary Fund working paper by Leandro Medina and Friedrich Schneider (2018).
Level of current health expenditure expressed as a percentage of GDP. Estimates of current health expenditures include healthcare goods and services consumed during each year but does not include capital health expenditures such as buildings, machinery, IT and stocks of vaccines for emergency or outbreaks.
General government expenditure on education is expressed as a percentage of GDP. It includes expenditure funded by transfers from international sources to government. General government usually refers to local, regional and central governments.
Military spending includes expenditure on peacekeeping, defense ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities, military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions, operations and maintenance; procurement, military research and development, and military aid.
The cost of starting a business indicator includes all official fees and fees for legal or professional services if such services are required by law. The company law, the commercial code, and specific regulations and fee schedules are used as sources for calculating costs. Source: The World Bank.
Total tax rate measures the amount of taxes and mandatory contributions payable by businesses after accounting for allowable deductions and exemptions as a share of commercial profits. Personal income tax, VAT, sales taxes or goods and service taxes are excluded.
Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent. Source: The World Bank.
Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years.
Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc. Source: The World Bank.
Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes.
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens. Source: FAO
Average precipitation is the long-term average in depth (over space and time) of annual precipitation in the country. Precipitation is defined as any kind of water that falls from clouds as a liquid or a solid.
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Source: The World Bank.
Number of ATMs per 100,000 adults. Automated teller machines are computerized telecommunications devices that provide clients of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public place.
ğ§ğ¾ Dedicating resources to Belarus' free media and independent civil society will promote a safer and more secure Europe. ğ£ï¸ We call for Member States to support media freedom, delivering assistance and shelter to Belarusian journalists seeking refuge. @TatjanaBab#EESCplenaryhttps://t.co/PyXTUo1FqJ
IndustriALL condemns in the strongest terms attacks against union leaders and activists in #Belarus. They must all be immediately released and all charges be dropped. Latest statement with details on the cases of Maxim Poznyakov and Zinaida Mikhniukâ¡ï¸https://t.co/7S27D117M6https://t.co/Sp1FGCduAZ
There is no end to the repression of independent union leaders in #Belarus as Maxim Poznyakov, chair of the Belarusian Independent Trade Union BITU, was arrested today. The last chair of leading independent trade unions to be arrested, Maxim will face court tomorrow. https://t.co/Q11DbTtfog
ğ§ğ¾Global unions call for immediate release of jailed Belarusian union activists. On 19 April, more than 20 leaders and activists of Belarusian Congress of Democratic Trade Unions were detained. At least ten remain in custody; they and their colleagues are prisoners of conscience. https://t.co/5IfIgoEOFc
ğºğ¦ Amid the war in Ukraine, #ESMA reminds fund managers: âªï¸ on the appropriate action in case of exposures to Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian assets âªï¸ the process fund managers should follow when evaluating these assets ğ https://t.co/l5SbgfR4jKhttps://t.co/iW71Hd2ZdR
âMeeting Capt. Misto, CEO of @Carc_jo. ğ¯ğ´ is a close partner w/ whom we share strong ties & cooperate closely. Special thanks for your support to fight against the illegal human trafficking carried out by the Belarussian regime!â DG Hololei at #FutureAviationForumhttps://t.co/u6HCjaky7P
â¡ï¸Belarusian defence ministry announced Â«a special operationÂ» on the border with Ukraine. The ministry argues that Â«Ukraineâs Armed Forces have created a 20-thousand group of troops [on Belarus-Ukraine border] which requires our attentionÂ». https://t.co/coDqzrXQjW
Debate on the Polish â Belarus border BiaÅowieÅ¼a Forest ğ³ Â @rozathun: "In this important exchange today there is a big absent: @EU_Commission as guardian of the treatiesÂ & the Rule of Law. NGOs, local communities & the @Europarl_EN have been demanding actions for months." https://t.co/uDu6TyAYdS
The self-proclaimed President of Belarus, Alexander Lukashenko, believes that Putin's war in Ukraine did not go according to plan. He said in an interview with the @AP, "the operation has dragged on." https://t.co/XR7MIUmNTr
Belarusian photographer Pasha Kritchko created Putin's portrait of 1500 war photographs, depicting "horror, pain, suffering, death, crippled destinies, crimes, inhumanity and evil." "Looking at all these photos, it's still hard for me to understand the people who support it." https://t.co/aRSYJKx2ox
IndustriALL urges Administration of Belarus President to stop union repression, remove Belarusian Radio and Electronic Industry Workers' Union from list of extremist organizations and allow Belarusian Radio and Electronic Industry Workers' Union to carry out union activity. https://t.co/zZuVXOtciD
3/ In his turn, Lukashenko stated that "a civilizational collision" between Russia and the West is happening in Ukraine and argued that Â«the West wants to destroy us [Russia and Belarus]Â». https://t.co/S9qxptqu6K
The self-proclaimed President Lukashenko wants Belarus to be a side of the negotiations process between Russia and Ukraine. "This war is seriously affecting the situation in Belarus. Therefore, there can be no agreements behind Belarus" - he said. https://t.co/zZeYIzMAyX
On 21 April, ENVI Members will discuss with Commissionâs DG Environment about the implications of the barrier that is currently being built between the Polish-Belarus border on the status of strictly protected Natura 2000 sites and their unique biodiversity status. The construction of th...
We call for all EU countries to identify & expel Russian & Belarusian covert operatives active on EU soil! The @EU_Commission must conduct a thorough assessment of the use of visa-free travel to the EU to identify loopholes. No more free passes to Putinâs proxies! https://t.co/Pvm8rONx3S
ğ¨The ğªğº must increase the financial and economic blockade of the Putin & Lukashenka regimes! #Bucha Today, we repeat our call on the @EU_Commission & the Member States to exclude all Russian & Belarusian financial institutions from #SWIFT. https://t.co/mKo4spyiuG
ğ¨The ğªğº must increase the financial and economic blockade of the Putin & Lukashenka regimes! Today, we repeat our call on the @EU_Commission & the Member States to exclude all Russian & Belarusian financial institutions from #SWIFT. #EUCOhttps://t.co/A3a7zBm7xa
Look at these faces. Zoom in. These are Russian soldiers sending things they looted in Ukraine, to Russia. Some sent over 400 kg each, including equipment, tables, tents, TVs etc. - Investigation by Belaruski Hayun, a Belarusian media. RU soldiers sent things from Belarus https://t.co/SNZBSdJKii
1.1 We're moving ahead with our plans to exclude Russia and Belarus from receiving funding for projects. The EBRD Board of Governors have approved taking firm action against the Russian Federation & Belarus following the invasion of Ukraine. https://t.co/w0p7JrjgBuhttps://t.co/0Vwq8LZP6N
We should not forget: Belarus is also the party to the war in Ukraine as it provides it territory to base Russian troops and military equipment. Ukraine is being hit by Russians from the Belarus as well. Source for infographics: @StratcomCentrehttps://t.co/CUQt2W8BSf
Intensive cooperation and coordination between enforcement authorities at EU level has led to the seizure of millions of fake and possibly harmful products and has helped to take down several transnational criminal ne...
In spite of having been long evoked in all its horror by writers who had lived it and by champions of the poor, it is nonetheless still explained by lawyers and defended by property owners as a necessary evil.
CONTESTED SPACE: EASTERN EUROPE BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE EU March 2017 INFO@CER.ORG.UK | WWW.CER.ORG.UK 3 The Soviet Union officially ceased to exist on December 26 th 1991, but by then all 15 of its constituent republi...
When young people move out of supported accommodation the leap to independent living can be tough. A new project in the north west of England is converting a former sheltered housing block for elderly people into mana...
The research presented in this report highlights a complex and rapidly changing set of dynamics in global terrorism. While on the one hand the top-line statistics highlight an improvement in the levels of global terro...