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Estonia

EU Member State (Euro-Area)

Estonia Indicators

Happiness

6.19

0 unhappy, 10 happy

2020
The Happiness ranking is part of the World Happiness Report. The country scores are based on a survey in which respondents evaluate the quality of their current lives on a scale of 0 to 10.
Life expectancy

78.50

years

2019
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.
Political stability

0.64

-2.5 weak, 2.5 strong

2019
The Political Stability Index and Absence of Violence/Terrorism measures perceptions of the likelihood that the government will be destabilized or overthrown by unconstitutional or violent means, including politically-motivated violence and terrorism.
Political rights

1

7 weak, 1 strong

2020
The Political Rights ratings from the Freedom House evaluate three categories: electoral process, political pluralism and participation, and the functioning of government. The index ranges from 1 (strong rights) to 7 (weak rights).
Civil liberties

1

7 weak, 1 strong

2020
The Civil Liberties index from the Freedom House evaluate the following: freedom of expression and belief, associational and organizational rights, rule of law, and personal autonomy and individual rights. The rating ranges from 1 (strong liberties) to 7 (no liberties).
Corruption

74

100 = no corruption

2019
The Corruption Perceptions Index is an indicator of perceptions of public sector corruption, i.e. administrative and political corruption (based on information from surveys and assessments of corruption, collected by a variety of reputable institutions).
Population

1.33

Million

2019
Total population is indicated in Millions and is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship. The values shown are midyear estimates.
Population growth

0.35

% growth / year

2018
Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
Population density

30

People per square km

2018
Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
Urban population

69.05

% of total population

2019
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. The data are collected and smoothed by United Nations Population Division.
Migrant population

15

% of total

2015
International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees.
Economic growth

5.00

% of GDP

2019
Economic growth is intended as the annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency.
Foreign Direct Investment

9.41

% of GDP

2019
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor (new investment inflows less disinvestment). Source: The World Bank.
Exports

72.91

% of GDP

2019
Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. Source: The World Bank
Government debt

18.20

% of GDP

2020
Government debt includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government.
Capital investment

27.69

% of GDP

2019
Capital investments are fixed assets including for example land improvements, plant, machinery, construction of roads, railways, schools, offices, hospitals, private residential, commercial and industrial buildings, etc.
Inflation

-0.4

% yearly change

2020
Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly.
Competitiveness

70.90

0 weak, 100 strong

2019
The Global Competitiveness index is composed of 12 pillars of competitiveness: Institutions, Infrastructure, ICT adoption, Macroeconomic stability, Health, Skills, Product market, Labor market, Financial system, market size, Business, dynamism, and Innovation capability.
R&D

1.43

% of GDP

2018
Gross domestic expenditures on research and development (R&D), expressed as a percent of GDP. They include both capital and current expenditures in the four main sectors: Business enterprise, Government, Higher education and Private non-profit.
Shadow economy

18.49

% of GDP

2015
The shadow economy as percent of total annual GDP. Detailed methodology of the estimations can be obtained from the following International Monetary Fund working paper by Leandro Medina and Friedrich Schneider (2018).
Health spending

6.69

% of GDP

2018
Level of current health expenditure expressed as a percentage of GDP. Estimates of current health expenditures include healthcare goods and services consumed during each year but does not include capital health expenditures such as buildings, machinery, IT and stocks of vaccines for emergency or outbreaks.
Education spending

4.97

% of GDP

2017
General government expenditure on education is expressed as a percentage of GDP. It includes expenditure funded by transfers from international sources to government. General government usually refers to local, regional and central governments.
Military spending

2.12

% of GDP

2019
Military spending includes expenditure on peacekeeping, defense ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities, military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions, operations and maintenance; procurement, military research and development, and military aid.
Unemployment

6.46

% of labor force

2020
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Source: The World Bank
Females unemployment

4.85

% of female labor force

2019
Female unemployment refers to the share of the female labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Source: The World Bank
Males unemployment

4.08

% of male labor force

2019
Male unemployment refers to the share of the male labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Source: The World Bank
Youth unemployment

11.09

% of 15-24 labor force

2019
Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Source: The World Bank
Cost of starting a business

1.00

% of income per capita

2019
The cost of starting a business indicator includes all official fees and fees for legal or professional services if such services are required by law. The company law, the commercial code, and specific regulations and fee schedules are used as sources for calculating costs. Source: The World Bank.
Tax rate

47.80

% of commercial profits

2019
Total tax rate measures the amount of taxes and mandatory contributions payable by businesses after accounting for allowable deductions and exemptions as a share of commercial profits. Personal income tax, VAT, sales taxes or goods and service taxes are excluded.
Number of taxes paid by businesses

8

2019
Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent. Source: The World Bank.
Patent applications

31

by residents

2019
Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years.
Internet users

89.53

% of population

2019
Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc. Source: The World Bank.
Land area

43470

sq. km

2018
Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes.
Agricultural land

10040

sq. km.

2018
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Source: FAO.
Forest area

24384.0

sq. km

2018
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens. Source: FAO
Precipitation

626

mm per year

2017
Average precipitation is the long-term average in depth (over space and time) of annual precipitation in the country. Precipitation is defined as any kind of water that falls from clouds as a liquid or a solid.
Roads quality

4.70

1 low, 7 high

2019
The Road quality indicator represents an assessment of the quality of roads in a given country based on data from the WEF Executive Opinion Survey. The respondents are asked to rate the roads in their country of operation on a scale from 1 (bad) to 7 (good).
Railroads quality

3.10

1 low, 7 high

2019
The Quality of railroad infrastrucutre indicator represents an assessment of the quality of the railroad system in a given country based on data from the WEF Executive Opinion Survey. The respondents are asked to rate the railroads in their country of operation on a scale from 1 (bad) to 7 (good).
Air transport quality

4.60

1 low, 7 high

2019
The Quality of air transport infrastructure indicator represents an assessment of the quality of airports in a given country based on data from the WEF Executive Opinion Survey. The respondents are asked to rate the passenger air transport in their country of operation on a scale from 1 (bad) to 7 (good).
Energy imports

-2.71

% total energy use

2015
Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Source: The World Bank
Oil production

0.00

thousand barrels / day

2020
Oil production, thousand barrels per day
Renewable power capacity

0.82

million kilowatts

2019
Total capacity to produce electricity from renewable resources in million kilowatts.
Carbon dioxide emissions

12.61

metric tons per capita

2016
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Source: The World Bank.
Bank branches

10.07

per 100,000 people

2017
Number of commercial bank branches per 100,000 adults.
ATMs

66.87

per 100,000 adults

2019
Number of ATMs per 100,000 adults. Automated teller machines are computerized telecommunications devices that provide clients of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public place.
Homicides

2.2

per 100,000 people

2017
Number of homicides per 100,000 people per year.
Robberies

15

per 100,000 people

2017
Number of robberies per 100,000 people per year.
Suicides

14.90

per 100,000 population

2019
Suicide mortality rate is the number of suicide deaths in a year per 100,000 population.
Prisoners

197

per 100,000 people

2017
Number of prisoners per 100,000 people.

Estonia News More ...

Estonia Publications More ...

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Africa and EU-Africa partnership insights: input for estonia...
Africa and EU-Africa partnership insights: input for estonia’s new africa strategy - ECDPM
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Road freight vehicles are a key enabler of global economic activity and play an essential role in delivering all types of goods or commodities from their points of production to the factories and industries that use o...
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Adolescent obesity and related behaviours: trends and inequali...
Adolescent obesity and related behaviours: trends and inequalities in the WHO European Region, 2002–2014
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Administrative data collection on rape, femicide and intimate ...
Administrative data collection on rape, femicide and intimate partner violence in EU Member States
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The ranking shows that only three countries in Europe push in the right direction to deliver on the Paris climate agreement. Sweden tops the list, followed by Germany and France. Sweden scores the highest among all E...
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Global oil and gas upstream investment fell by 25% in 2015 and by another 26% in 2016, affecting the major oil companies and smaller independents alike. In 2017 there are modest signs of recovery led by higher investm...
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Since the economic crisis in 2008, austerity has slowed the growth of wages in European countries. In the vast majority of EU countries, wage are stagnating or even decreasing.
Read

Estonia VideosMore ...

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#EPFCongress2021 Q&A with Terje Peetso, North Estonia Medical ...
10 Aug 2021
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health #EPFCongress2021 Q&A with Terje Peetso, North Estonia Medical Centre
#EPFCongress2021 Q&A with Terje Peetso, North Estonia Medical ...
9 Aug 2021
European Patients' Forum
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transport Tallinn’s Climate Action Plan and methodology for calculating storm water fees at municipal level
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science B1MG Estonia visit | Private sector in personalised medicine in Estonia, governments’ view
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science B1MG Estonia visit | Genetic risk communication and counselling
B1MG Estonia visit | Genetic risk communication and counselling
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science B1MG Estonia visit | A doctor's view. Return of genetic data to patients and biobank participants
B1MG Estonia visit | A doctor's view. Return of genetic data t...
10 Jun 2021
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science B1MG Estonia visit | Pharmacogenomics in Estonia
B1MG Estonia visit | Pharmacogenomics in Estonia
10 Jun 2021
ELIXIR Europe
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science B1MG Estonia visit | Precision medicine in cardiovascular diseases prevention
B1MG Estonia visit | Precision medicine in cardiovascular dise...
10 Jun 2021
ELIXIR Europe
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science B1MG Estonia visit | Including genetic data in breast cancer prevention and early detection
B1MG Estonia visit | Including genetic data in breast cancer ...
10 Jun 2021
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science B1MG Estonia visit | Genomics in Spain ??
B1MG Estonia visit | Genomics in Spain ??
10 Jun 2021
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science B1MG Estonia visit | Genomics in Latvia ??
B1MG Estonia visit | Genomics in Latvia ??
10 Jun 2021
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science B1MG Estonia visit | Genomics in Hungary ??
B1MG Estonia visit | Genomics in Hungary ??
10 Jun 2021
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science B1MG Estonia visit | Biobanks in Estonia
B1MG Estonia visit | Biobanks in Estonia
10 Jun 2021
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science B1MG Estonia visit | IT architecture behind the Estonian Personalised Medicine Programme
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10 Jun 2021
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science B1MG Estonia visit | Implementation of personalised medicine in Estonia
B1MG Estonia visit | Implementation of personalised medicine i...
10 Jun 2021
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science B1MG Estonia visit | Governance of personalised medicine in Estonia
B1MG Estonia visit | Governance of personalised medicine in Es...
10 Jun 2021
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cities [UCCs 1st Progress Meeting – 2021] Tallinn Presentation
[UCCs 1st Progress Meeting – 2021] Tallinn Presentation
7 Jun 2021
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Winter soldiers | UK?? troops train in Estonia?? in freezing t...
16 Apr 2021
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29 Mar 2021
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digital European Film Forum Tallinn - 23 November 2020
European Film Forum Tallinn - 23 November 2020
8 Mar 2021
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rural Organic farming's expansion in Estonia
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28 Jan 2021
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rural Organic farming's expansion in Estonia
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19 Jan 2021
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renewable Webinar: Elering’s e-Gridmap - For optimised investment in RES generation & grid integration
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water #IamTheBaltic - Estonia 3
#IamTheBaltic - Estonia 3
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security #OSCEMC20 Statement by the Head of the Delegation of Estonia
#OSCEMC20 Statement by the Head of the Delegation of Estonia
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sme Circularity Check Webinar Ecopreneur.eu
Circularity Check Webinar Ecopreneur.eu
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trade EEPA 2020 Investing in Entrepreneurial Skills: Mobile Workshops, Estonia
EEPA 2020 Investing in Entrepreneurial Skills: Mobile Workshop...
16 Nov 2020
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culture TYPA - Estonian Print and Paper Museum, Tartu, ESTONIA - ILUCIDARE Special Prizes 2020
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institutions Press statement by President von der Leyen
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2 Oct 2020
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Rawmaterials 9. Michael Hitch, Professor at Tallinn University of Technology
9. Michael Hitch, Professor at Tallinn University of Technology
21 Sep 2020
EIT RawMaterials
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employment 2020.08.31_Work_in_Estonia
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chemicals VinylPlus and the Circular Economy – Estonian Subtitles
VinylPlus and the Circular Economy – Estonian Subtitles
12 Aug 2020
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digital Does the P2B apply to you? An explainer for businesses (Estonian subtitles)
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security NATO’s enhanced Forward Presence Battlegroup Estonia?? continues to exercise
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8 May 2020
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air Air traffic situation over Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia - 22 April 2020 vs 24 April 2019
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institutions Citizens’ Dialogue with Executive Vice-President Frans Timmermans
Citizens’ Dialogue with Executive Vice-President Frans Timmermans
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6 May 2020
Frontex
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migration Training for cross-border crime detection experts in Tallinn
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culture PÄRNU, Estonia
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Estonia Organisers More ...

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