The Political Stability Index and Absence of Violence/Terrorism measures perceptions of the likelihood that the government will be destabilized or overthrown by unconstitutional or violent means, including politically-motivated violence and terrorism.
The Political Rights ratings from the Freedom House evaluate three categories: electoral process, political pluralism and participation, and the functioning of government. The index ranges from 1 (strong rights) to 7 (weak rights).
The Civil Liberties index from the Freedom House evaluate the following: freedom of expression and belief, associational and organizational rights, rule of law, and personal autonomy and individual rights. The rating ranges from 1 (strong liberties) to 7 (no liberties).
The Corruption Perceptions Index is an indicator of perceptions of public sector corruption, i.e. administrative and political corruption (based on information from surveys and assessments of corruption, collected by a variety of reputable institutions).
Total population is indicated in Millions and is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship. The values shown are midyear estimates.
Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor (new investment inflows less disinvestment). Source: The World Bank.
Government debt includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government.
Capital investments are fixed assets including for example land improvements, plant, machinery, construction of roads, railways, schools, offices, hospitals, private residential, commercial and industrial buildings, etc.
Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly.
The Global Competitiveness index is composed of 12 pillars of competitiveness: Institutions, Infrastructure, ICT adoption, Macroeconomic stability, Health, Skills, Product market, Labor market, Financial system, market size, Business, dynamism, and Innovation capability.
Gross domestic expenditures on research and development (R&D), expressed as a percent of GDP. They include both capital and current expenditures in the four main sectors: Business enterprise, Government, Higher education and Private non-profit.
The shadow economy as percent of total annual GDP. Detailed methodology of the estimations can be obtained from the following International Monetary Fund working paper by Leandro Medina and Friedrich Schneider (2018).
Level of current health expenditure expressed as a percentage of GDP. Estimates of current health expenditures include healthcare goods and services consumed during each year but does not include capital health expenditures such as buildings, machinery, IT and stocks of vaccines for emergency or outbreaks.
General government expenditure on education is expressed as a percentage of GDP. It includes expenditure funded by transfers from international sources to government. General government usually refers to local, regional and central governments.
Military spending includes expenditure on peacekeeping, defense ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities, military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions, operations and maintenance; procurement, military research and development, and military aid.
The cost of starting a business indicator includes all official fees and fees for legal or professional services if such services are required by law. The company law, the commercial code, and specific regulations and fee schedules are used as sources for calculating costs. Source: The World Bank.
Total tax rate measures the amount of taxes and mandatory contributions payable by businesses after accounting for allowable deductions and exemptions as a share of commercial profits. Personal income tax, VAT, sales taxes or goods and service taxes are excluded.
Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent. Source: The World Bank.
Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years.
Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc. Source: The World Bank.
Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes.
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens. Source: FAO
Average precipitation is the long-term average in depth (over space and time) of annual precipitation in the country. Precipitation is defined as any kind of water that falls from clouds as a liquid or a solid.
The Road quality indicator represents an assessment of the quality of roads in a given country based on data from the WEF Executive Opinion Survey. The respondents are asked to rate the roads in their country of operation on a scale from 1 (bad) to 7 (good).
The Quality of railroad infrastrucutre indicator represents an assessment of the quality of the railroad system in a given country based on data from the WEF Executive Opinion Survey. The respondents are asked to rate the railroads in their country of operation on a scale from 1 (bad) to 7 (good).
The Quality of air transport infrastructure indicator represents an assessment of the quality of airports in a given country based on data from the WEF Executive Opinion Survey. The respondents are asked to rate the passenger air transport in their country of operation on a scale from 1 (bad) to 7 (good).
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Source: The World Bank.
Number of ATMs per 100,000 adults. Automated teller machines are computerized telecommunications devices that provide clients of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public place.
“Just because it is now obvious that #Brexit is not for free, agreements cannot simply be called into question or renegotiated ... What kind of understanding of compliance is that? Shameful” EU balks at UK’s demand to rewrite Northern Ireland Protocol ➡️https://t.co/t6OCTKLhd2https://t.co/EQ278XFzJG
With #NextGenEU support, Ireland will build social and economic resilience for generations to come. The plan lays out reforms and investments in: 🟡 housing 🟡 pensions 🟡 entrepreneurship 🟡 healthcare 🟡 higher education #MakeItRealhttps://t.co/EZoDDuCkSO
In 2019, EUR 2 585 billion of EU value added was supported by #exports to non-member countries, equivalent to 20.7% of the EUR 12 476 billion total value added in the EU. Highest shares: 🇮🇪 Ireland (50.7%), 🇱🇺 Luxembourg (36.6%) and 🇲🇹 Malta (30.0%). ℹ️ https://t.co/wSf5dhcUuxhttps://t.co/yzIEVXCXfq
Drop in the number of housing transactions in 2020. Largest decreases: 🇨🇾 Cyprus (-23.3%), 🇸🇮 Slovenia (-17.5%), 🇧🇪 Belgium (-17.4%) & 🇮🇪 Ireland (-16.4%). Increase recorded in: 🇫🇮 Finland (+7.7%), 🇳🇱 the Netherlands (+10.0%) & 🇩🇰 Denmark (+20.1%). ℹ️ https://t.co/CEPdW4AYgShttps://t.co/3xdPCtJ27u
📉🎒 Rate of children leaving #education and training early in the EU is continuing to decline. Lowest shares in 2020: 🇭🇷 Croatia (2.2%) 🇬🇷 Greece (3.8%) 🇸🇮 Slovenia (4.1%) 🇮🇪 Ireland (5%) Highest: 🇲🇹 Malta (16.7%) 🇪🇸 Spain (16%) 🇷🇴 Romania (15.6%) 👉 https://t.co/sJoTK6ZdLrhttps://t.co/cSIQzW5EpM
On the road of becoming the world’s first climate-neutral continent by 2050, heat-pump technologies are the number one heating and cooling solution, being a core enabler for a renewable, sustainable and smart energy system.
Pharmaceutical Lyophilization Summit 2021 is a knowledge sharing to showcase best practices in technical and regulatory updates, manufacturing and process development, freeze-dried formulation, testing, monitoring, and new product development.
System architecture is a distinguishing discipline in the development and commercialization of complex systems, products and machines. This event brings together system architects to share their lessons learned.
Our speakers will cover many topics across our two-days program focused on sports science, strength & conditioning, performance and tactical analysis, as well as on the talent identification and scouting areas.
The conference aims at providing those manoeuvring through the changing and increasingly difficult European regulatory landscape for microplastics with a supportive discussion platform and practical information.
During the SMARTEES conference, attendees will learn about state of the art insights on how to support communities and strengthen local democracy to achieve sustainable energy- and mobility transitions.
The latest COBRA market intelligence report on the EV battery landscape. Many thanks to Victor Jose Ferreira Ferreira (UPC), Gabriela Benveniste Pérez (UPC) and Lluc Canals Casals (IREC) for contributing to this issue.
In the last few weeks the permit for the small-scale anaerobic digestion (biogas) was approved in Austria. Now it is possible to start implementing the HOUSEFUL solutions in Cambium Leben in Gemeinschaft, where one of...